Military conflict began in the Tigray region of Ethiopia between federal and regional forces more than one year ago, with the active involvement of the Eritrean army. The war has expanded from Tigray in the northwest to other parts of the country, including the Afar, Amhara, and Oromia regions. With violence rapidly escalating, Ethiopia faces an immense humanitarian crisis and growing socioeconomic and political instability both within and beyond the country’s borders. According to local authorities and the UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), an estimated 2.1 million people have been internally displaced in the Tigray region. UNICEF has reported that 60,000 Ethiopian refugees from Tigray have fled into Sudan since November 2020 to seek safety. In August 2021, the United Nations estimated that at least 400,000 people were living in famine-like conditions. Two camps housing Eritrean refugees in northern Tigray were completely destroyed, and thousands of Eritrean refugees have been abducted or forcibly returned to Eritrea. This roundtable brings together experts with deep knowledge and experience of the region to highlight the deteriorating human rights and security conditions in the country and the Horn of Africa.